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  • The maximum efficiency of transformer occurs at when constant loss is equal to variable loss.
  • For distribution transformers, the core loss is 15 to 20% of full load copper loss
  • Hence, maximum efficiency of distribution transformers occurs at a loading between 40 – 60%.
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  •  Transformer Losses are: - No-load loss (iron loss) is constant.
  • These are 0.2 - 0.5%of nominal power.
  •  Load loss (copper loss) varies with square of load.
  • These are 0.7 - 2.1% of nominal power.
  • Max transformer efficiency is got at a % loading,  given by = SQRT( Iron Loss / Copper Loss )
  • Moisture content in Transformer --Operating experience with transformer insulation over many years has shown that moisture in microscopic amounts – is the cause of more electrical breakdowns.
  • Recognition of extremely small amount of moisture has grown with the increase in voltage stress, load and reduced B I Ls (Basic Insulation Levels).
  • Indeed, moisture ‘constitutes a hazard not only to the dielectric performance of the oil itself but also to insulations that are immersed in the oil’.
  • The Every time the moisture content of the solid insulation doubles, the expected life of the transformer is cut in half. Throughout a transformer’s operating life, moisture will accumulate in the solid insulation.
  •  This moisture originates either from: outside the transformer or from within, as the liquid and solid insulation age and oxidize over time. Cellulose insulation has affinity to absorb the moisture up to 8-9% moisture per dry weight (%M/DW). International standards say it should be less than 1% for ideal healthy operating transformer
  • Hence Transformer On-line Dry out system using the above brings back the healthy parameters in the transformer. This means wet transformers can be dehydrated without being taken out of service and this is the better compared to existing streamline filtering which is destructive to transformer’s life
  • Capacitor kVAr for Transformers (Reference: L&T Switchgear Division)
  • Transformers, which work on of electro-magnetic induction, consume reactive power for their own needs even when its secondary is not connected to any load. The power factor will be very low in such a state. To improve power factor, it is required to connect a fixed capacitor bank at LT side of the transformer.
  • KVA of Transformer -           kVAr required. for compensation
  • Upto  315 kVA                        5% of kVA rating
  • 315 – 1000 kVA                      6% of kVA rating
  • Above 1000 kVA                      8% of kVA rating
  • Have you comforted & compensated your transformer to reduce per day losses to minimum?


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